M.Sc. Settlement Archaeology

Required Courses


SA        501     Theory in Archaeology                      

SA        505     Geoarchaeology                                

SA        510     Spatial Analysis in Archaeology        

SA        512     Environmental Archaeology              

SA        597     Research Methods and Ethics in Archaeology (NC)

SA        598     Field Methods in Archaeology I (NC)       

SA        500     Seminar in Settlement Archaeology (NC)

SA        599     Thesis (NC)


Elective Courses



SA        502     Artefact Analysis and Quantification                      

SA        503     Anatolian Archaeology                                            

SA        506     Workshop in Settlement Archaeology                     

SA        509     Human Biological and Cultural Evolution: Archaeological

                        Approaches, Theory and Interpretation                  

SA        514     GIS Applications in Settlement Archaeology           

SA        518     Archaeology as Anthropology

SA        521     World Rock Art: From Paleolithic to Present

SA        524      Rock Art Studio: Theories, Methods, and Management                                  

SA        527     Aerial Archaeology                                                   

SA        528     Landscape Analysis for Archaeologists                   

SA        531     Experimental Archaeology                                       

AH       535     Seminar in Greek Architecture                                 

AH       536     Seminar in Roman Architecture                               

ARCH  422     Classical Antiquity in Anatolia                                  

ARCH  482     Conservation of Archaeological Sites                       

ARCH  407     City in Late Antiquity and Byzantium: Topography and Architecture

ARME  501     General Archaeometry                                              

ARME  540     Conservation and Restoration of Archaeological Objects 

ARME  541     Archaeological Materials and Their Properties

CONS  521    Sources, Methods and Ethics of Research in Conservation  

CP       517     Issues in Urban Archaeology           

GEOE  528     Remote Sensing         

GEOE  560     Rocks and Minerals in Archaeological Studies       

HIST    540     Analysis of Historical Sources

SOC     523     Data Analysis 








SA        501     Theory in Archaeology

The goal of this course is to familiarise the student with the theoretical and methodological developments in the field of archaeology.  The intellectual foundations of archaeological research and how material culture is investigated, analyzed and interpreted will be discussed. Current trends, problems in theory of archaeology, modern interpretative techniques constitute the main issues at stake. The interdisciplinarity of archaeological study will be emphasized through both theoretical and methodological approaches.

SA        502     Artefact Analysis and Quantification          

This course is an introduction to analysis and quantification of archaeological artefacts. It discusses research questions, interpretation and social significance of artefacts as well as analytical methods to be used so as to identify, record and present information correctly for a finds report. Topics include: theoretical issues on artefact analysis; extracting meaning from the artefact; changes in artefact style and its relation to culture; issues of methodology; establishing parameters for the analysis; quantification; illustration of artefacts; practical work; reporting on the results of practical work.

SA        503     Anatolian Archaeology

This course aims at introducing the archaeological data from Anatolia pertaining to the period from ca. 10.000 BC through the end of the Byzantine Period.  This elementary course will focus on the settlements and the material culture discovered at these settlements in an attempt to provide a background to students of the Settlement Archaeology Graduate Program that come from departments other than Archaeology.  While it is a good review for the students of our program, students from other programs who are interested in the ancient cultures of Anatolia may benefit greatly from this course.


SA        505     Geoarchaeology         

This course discusses paleo-morphological and geological processes as applied to settlement archaeology. The main topics of the course include environmental systems, natural formation processes, spatial context of the sites in their physical settings, human impact on the landscape, paleo-environmental reconstructions.


SA        506     Workshop in Settlement Archaeology  


This course concentrates on advanced research methods relevant to settlement archaeology. The course aims to teach the students methods of scientific research, verbal-visual communication and team work skills of settlement archaeology applied on and off site.


SA        509     Human Biological and Cultural Evolution: Archaeological Approaches, Theory and Interpretation    

This course examines archaeological theories about the development of human society. The main element is the debate about what constitutes the driven force in any given social formation. This is illustrated with archaeological examples mainly of early periods . There is a particular emphasis on the natural environments, as this is perceived as the main force by several archaeologists. Some modern trends advocating that the study of ancient societies could help present societies to plan better their future are also presented.


SA        510     Spatial Analysis in Archaeology

This course introduces the basic concepts, assumptions and methods of data collection, however the primary focus is on spatial analysis at regional, local and intra-site scales and within social and ecological contexts. Throughout the course, we will survey various methods of data identification, collection and analysis which are used to interpret artifact distributions at various geographical frames from intra-site to regional scales. In doing so, we will pay particular attention to theories that inform the development and use of different interpretations.


SA        512     Environmental Archaeology            

This course deals with the study of past environment and landscapes of Middle East and Balkans and their implications for settlement archaeology. Major topics of the course include past environments on a global scale, paleo-climates, the evolution of coastal areas and sea levels through time, investigation of the past landscapes, reconstructing the plant environment, polynology, macrobotanical remains, the animal environment, microfauna and macrofaunal remains, the human environment, and the human impact on various environmental contexts.


SA        514     GIS Applications in Settlement Archaeology      


The aim of this course is to acquaint students with the great potential offered by GIS for the investigation of spatial relationship in archaeological data. The course consists of two parts: In part I, basic concepts and characteristics of GIS are discussed. Basic features of GIS, such as  Digital Terrain Models, which have direct relevance to archaeology are stressed.

Part II deals with archaeological applications of GIS. Using case studies the potentials of GIS as a research tool will be discussed, e.g. site catchment analysis and archaeological site inventory systems. Students will have the opportunity to gain practical experience in the use of GIS using archaeological data which is available at the data bank of the METU museum.


SA        518      Archaeology as Anthropology

This course traces the history of archaeological thought and explore  the diversity of theoretical approaches that comprise the modern field of archaeology. The course introduces students to the major issues of archaeology and the schools of thought that continue to influence archaeological debates around those issues, in a historical context.

SA        521     World Rock Art: From Paleolithic to Present

This course will consider rock art studies in several geographic regions of the world, in order to present the extent of rock art sites and rock art heritage from a global point of view. The approach will be broadly comparative, exploring the character of regional traditions, the role of different ecologies (cave art vs. open-air art) and social structures in shaping the character of rock art traditions. Regions from which case studies are drawn will include: Europe (Palaeolithic and Post-Paleolithic), Africa (Saharan and Sub-Saharan), Australia/Oceania, The Middle East and Anatolia, Asia, north and South America.


SA        522      Advanced Topics in Environmental Archaeology  

This course examines the contribution of environmental evidence to archaeological debates in a broader view. It takes examples of major archaeologically visible events and social- economical formations (such as Neolithisation, Urbanisation, Collapse of Cultures, Trade, Social Stratification, Rituals) and looks at the information that can be introduced to the archaeological enquiry by animal/plant data. The course is not "period" centered; in contrast, it aims to present environmental "approaches" in wider archaeological problems which are then generic and can be applied to various contexts and dates according to the interest of student.

SA        524      Rock Art Studio: Theories, Methods, and Management

This course will introduce some of the major issues in the study of rock art: the role of art historical and anthropological theories in the interpretation of rock art, questions of dating and chronology, and the use of informed ethnographic approaches among others. Students will be familiar with the range of processes which shape the surviving heritage of rock art, and explore issues of the management of rock art sites, ranging from recording, conservation and display in exhibition and museums to issues of the use of rock art sites by contemporary indigenous peoples.


SA        527      Aerial Archaeology   

Aerial photography is a useful and powerful tool to identify natural and/or artificial features existing on the earth’s surface. Archaeological information can be easily extracted from aerial photographs both by 3D (stereoscopic) analysis and from scanned photographs on the screen. The main objective of the course is to train students in the interpretation of aerial photographs for the identification of these features.


SA        528      Landscape Analysis for Archaeologists       

Archaeology program Several undergraduate /graduate courses are offered in the university that involve certain field studies. Most of the students in these courses have a general difficulty in the recognition of physiographic features of earth’s surface. Graduate students particularly in Settlement are believed to be familiar with morphological features and natural processes that exist in the vicinity of a site. The main objective of this course is, therefore, to teach and introduce basic features and earth’s surface to the student and to enable him/her to interpret topographic maps and extract information from landforms that surround the site.


SA        531      Experimental Archaeology   

A project designs for research to study the agricultural and domestic economy of Bronze and Iron Age in Anatolia. Experiments conceived out of the archaeological data to explore the questions raised by archaeologists.


SA        597       Research Methods and Ethics in Archaeology

The course is designed to provide the Master's and PhD level students with the most contemporary research methods in archaeology as well as an understanding of research and publication ethics. The students are expected to design a research proposal and generate a report on their summer field practice.


SA        598       Field Methods in Archaeology I

This course will provide hands-on experience in the field to students of archaeology. Field practice will be conducted on campus during when the students will actively participate in documentation, measuring, mapping, drawing and surveying. It is intended as a preparation for actual archaeological filed work expected from the students in the following summer months.